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Methanosalsum natronophilum sp. nov., and Methanocalculus alkaliphilus sp. nov., haloalkaliphilic methanogens from hypersaline soda lakes
Sorokin, D.Y.; Abbas, B.; Merkel, A.Y; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Sukhacheva, M.V; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M. (2015). Methanosalsum natronophilum sp. nov., and Methanocalculus alkaliphilus sp. nov., haloalkaliphilic methanogens from hypersaline soda lakes. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 65: 3739-3745. dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.000488
In: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. Society for General Microbiology: Reading. ISSN 1466-5026 , more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Sorokin, D.Y.
  • Abbas, B.
  • Merkel, A.Y
  • Rijpstra, W.I.C., more
  • Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., more
  • Sukhacheva, M.V
  • van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

Abstract
    Two groups of haloalkaliphilic methanogenic archaea were dominating in enrichments fromhypersaline soda lake sediments at pH 10. At moderate salt concentrations with formate or H2as electron donor, methanogens belonging to the genus Methanocalculus were enriched, whileat high salt concentrations with methylated substrates, a group related to Methanosalsumzhilinae was dominating. For both groups, several pure cultures were obtained including thetype strains AMF2T for the Methanocalculus group and AME2T for the Methanosalsumgroup. The Methanocalculus group is characterized by lithoheterotrophic growth with eitherformate (preferable substrate) or H2 at moderate salinity up to 1.5–2 M total Na+ and obligatealkaliphilic growth with an optimum at pH 9.5. According to phylogenetic analysis, the groupalso includes closely related strains isolated previously from the low-salt alkaline Lonar Lake.The novel Methanosalsum group is characterized by high salt tolerance (up to 3.5 M total Na+)and obligate alkaliphilic growth with an optimum at pH 9.5. It has a typical methylotrophicsubstrate profile, utilizing methanol, methylamines and dimethyl sulfide (at low concentrations)as methanogenic substrates. On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic data, it is proposedthat the two groups of soda lake methanogenic isolates are assigned into two novel species,Methanocalculus alkaliphilus sp. nov. (type strain AMF2T5DSM 24457T5UNIQEM U859T) andMethanosalsum natronophilum sp. nov. (type strain AME2T5DSM 24634T5NBRC 110091T).

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