|Palaeobiogeography and palaeogeographical implications of Permian marine bivalve faunas in Northeast Asia (Kolyma-Omolon and Verkhoyansk-Okhotsk regions, northeastern Russia)|Biakov, A.S.; Shi, G.R. (2010). Palaeobiogeography and palaeogeographical implications of Permian marine bivalve faunas in Northeast Asia (Kolyma-Omolon and Verkhoyansk-Okhotsk regions, northeastern Russia). Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 298(1-2): 42-53. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.04.019
In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. Elsevier: Amsterdam; Tokyo; Oxford; New York. ISSN 0031-0182, more
Permian; Bivalve faunas; Kolyma-Omolon province; Verkhoyan-Okhotskprovince; Palaeobiogeography; Northeast Asia
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The paper considers the biogeography and palaeogeographic implications of the Permian marine bivalve faunas of Northeast Asia, with a focus on the dynamic relationships between biotic similarities and palaeogeographic distance through an interval of ca. 50 million years. A stage-by-stage time series analysis of the biotic similarities between two previously recognized biochores in Northeast Asia, the Kolyma-Omolon and Verkhoyan-Okhotsk provinces, has been carried out using both the Jaccard and Dice similarity indices based on the spatio-temporal distributions of 355 Permian marine bivalve species in Northeast Asia. The outcome of this analysis, combined with other empirical data and previously published tectonic, sedimentological and palaeontological information, suggests that (1) the bivalve faunas from these two provinces were distinctive from one another as two separate biochores throughout all but the earliest (Asselian) Permian stages and (2) the biotic similarities between the Verkhoyan-Okhotsk and Kolyma-Omolon provinces remained consistently low since Sakmarian, all falling well below the minimum threshold of the Jaccard index of 0.42 required for distinguishing marine biotic provinces. We interpret these below-threshold Jaccard biotic similarities as an indication of significant palaeogeographic separation between the Verkhoyan-Okhotsk and Kolyma-Omolon provinces, which is in turn considered to indicate rifting and sea-floor spreading of the Omolon microcontinent and associated terranes and island arcs away from the North Asian craton, at least from the Sakmarian to the beginning of the Late Permian. Palaeo-distance separation appears to be the primary and most significant biogeographic determinant in accounting for the differences in the spatial distribution of most Permian bivalve species in Northeast Asia. Several other variables also appear to have played a significant role, including regional climate conditions, ocean currents and merged island chains as geographic barriers. In particular, the relatively high biotic similarity between the Verkhoyan-Okhotsk and Kolyma-Omolon provinces during the Late Wuchiapingian and Changhsingian may have been related to the shallowing of the deep-water basins (Oimyakon, Ayan-Yuryakh, Balygychan and Sugoi basins) that had previously separated the two provinces and the flooding (submergence) of the Okhotsk-Taigonos volcanic arc system, thus allowing the invasion of lower latitude warm-water Palaeotethyan and even Gondwanan species into Northeast Asia.