|Probing the phenomenon of trained immunity in invertebrates during a transgenerational study, using brine shrimp Artemia as a model system|Norouzitallab, P.; Biswas, P.; Vanrompay, D.; Bossier, P. (2016). Probing the phenomenon of trained immunity in invertebrates during a transgenerational study, using brine shrimp Artemia as a model system. NPG Scientific Reports 6(21166): 14 pp. hdl.handle.net/10.1038/srep21166
In: Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group). Nature Publishing Group: London. ISSN 2045-2322, more
Artemia Leach, 1819 [WoRMS]; Marine
The invertebrate’s innate immune system was reported to show some form of adaptive features, termed trained immunity. However, the memory characteristics of innate immune system and the mechanisms behind such phenomena remain unclear. Using the invertebrate model Artemia, we verified the possibility or impossibility of trained immunity, examining the presence or absence of enduring memory against homologous and heterologous antigens (Vibrio spp.) during a transgenerational study. We also determined the mechanisms behind such phenomenon. Our results showed the occurrence of memory and partial discrimination in Artemia’s immune system, as manifested by increased resistance, for three successive generations, of the progenies of Vibrio-exposed ancestors towards a homologous bacterial strain, rather than to a heterologous strain. This increased resistance phenotype was associated with elevated levels of hsp70 and hmgb1 signaling molecules and alteration in the expression of key innate immunity-related genes. Our results also showed stochastic pattern in the acetylation and methylation levels of H4 and H3K4me3 histones, respectively, in the progenies whose ancestors were challenged. Overall results suggest that innate immune responses in invertebrates have the capacity to be trained, and epigenetic reprogramming of (selected) innate immune effectors is likely to have central place in the mechanisms leading to trained immunity.