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Algae concentrated by frazil ice: evidence from laboratory experiments and field measurements
Garrison, D.L.; Close, A.R.; Reimnitz, E. (1989). Algae concentrated by frazil ice: evidence from laboratory experiments and field measurements. Antarctic Science 1(4): 313-316. hdl.handle.net/10.1017/S0954102089000477
In: Antarctic Science. Cambridge University Press: Oxford. ISSN 0954-1020, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Algae; Biota; Sea ice; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Garrison, D.L.
  • Close, A.R.
  • Reimnitz, E.

Abstract
    A number of studies have suggested that high concentrations of organisms in sea ice may be the result of harvesting and concentration by frazil ice. Laboratory experiments have shown that frazil ice can concentrate organisms from two to four times above levels in the underlying water. The concentrations in nature, however, can be considerably higher. The apparent discrepancy between laboratory results and field observations can be explained by the longer temporal and spatial scales that allow more contact of ice crystals with particles and with one another in the sea. It is also likely that small-scale circulation features, such as Langmuir circulation, enhance the ability of frazil ice to concentrate organisms in a natural setting.

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