|The marine molluscs of Arctic Canada|
Macpherson, E. (1971). The marine molluscs of Arctic Canada. Publications in Biological Oceanography, 3. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada: Ottawa. 149 pp.
Part of: Publications in Biological Oceanography. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada: Ottawa, more
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One hundred and eight species of prosobranch gastropods, chitons, and scaphopods are reported from the region between Hudson Strait, James Bay, Herschel Island, and northern Ellesmere Island. Six species are known only as empty shells and 11 are single records in the literature. Synonyms, a description, a figure, and geographical distributions are given for each. Arctic gastropods are for the most part small, thin-shelled animals and form a small proportion of the total biomass of the benthic epifauna. The majority have very broad distributions, occurring in most northern marine waters, and are adapted to short summers, long winters, negative temperatures, and varying salinities. Such adaptations include in some cases large yolky eggs or nurse eggs, non-pelagic larvae, and perhaps a high metabolism. More than half of the prosobranchs in arctic Canada are known to be carnivores and one third of all the species found here are in the family Buccinidae. The intertidal zone supports a meagre fauna in the Arctic compared to that in lower latitudes. More than half the species discussed are circumarctic and the rest have an "Arctic- Atlantic" or "Arctic-Pacific" pattern of distribution. About 34 species live in Hudson Bay and six even in James Bay. About six per cent are restricted to the Low Arctic in Canada and another five per cent are known mainly from the High Arctic. Most of the rest have a panarctic distribution.