|Effects of salinity stress on neurotransmission, energy metabolism, and anti-oxidant biomarkers of Carcinus maenas from two estuaries of the NW Iberian Peninsula|Rodrigues, A.P.; Oliveira, P.C.; Guilhermino, L.; Guimarães, L. (2012). Effects of salinity stress on neurotransmission, energy metabolism, and anti-oxidant biomarkers of Carcinus maenas from two estuaries of the NW Iberian Peninsula. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 159(9): 2061-2074. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s00227-012-1992-8
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162, more
|Authors|| || Top |
- Rodrigues, A.P.
- Oliveira, P.C.
- Guilhermino, L.
- Guimarães, L.
This study investigated the effects of salinity on biomarkers of oxidative stress, energy metabolism, and neurotransmission of Carcinus maenas from an estuary low impacted by pollution and from an estuary under chemical stress in the NW Iberian Peninsula. Crabs were collected in the field and, following an acclimation period, they were exposed for 7 days to five salinity levels ranging from 4 to 45 psu. At the end of the exposure period, stress biomarkers were determined in samples of muscle and digestive gland. The biomarkers assessed in the muscle were the activities of the enzymes cholinesterases (ChE), of which acetylcholinesterase is involved in neurotransmission, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) that are involved in energy metabolism. The biomarkers assessed in the digestive gland were (1) the activities of the enzymes glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), involved in phase II biotransformation and the anti-oxidant defence system; (2) the levels of total glutathiones (TG), also belonging to the anti-oxidant system; and (3) the levels of lipid peroxidation as a measure of oxidative damage. The results showed a significant influence of salinity on neurotransmission, energy metabolism, anti-oxidant status, and oxidative damage of C. maenas. For some biomarkers, this influence was dependent on whether the crabs were collected at the low-polluted estuary or at the contaminated estuary. In particular, crabs collected at the low-polluted estuary showed altered neurotransmission and anti-oxidant defences (GR). Crabs collected at the impacted estuary showed alterations in neurotransmission, energy metabolism (IDH and LDH), biotransformation, and anti-oxidant defences (GST, GR, GPx, and TG), as well as in oxidative damage, indicating that salinity change superimposes higher stress on these organisms. For ChE, IDH, and TG, altered responses were induced by both hypo- and hypersalinity.