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Genetic heterogeneity among Eurytemora affinis populations in Western Europe
Winkler, G.; Souissi, S.; Poux, C.; Castric, V. (2011). Genetic heterogeneity among Eurytemora affinis populations in Western Europe. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 158(8): 1841-1856.
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162; e-ISSN 1432-1793, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Winkler, G.
  • Souissi, S., more
  • Poux, C.
  • Castric, V.

    Evolutionary diversification of the broadly distributed copepod sibling species complex Eurytemora affinis has been documented in the northern hemisphere. However, the fine scale geographic distribution, levels of genetic subdivision, evolutionary, and demographic histories of European populations have been less explored. To gain information on genetic subdivision and to evaluate heterogeneity among European populations, we analyzed samples from 8 locations from 58° to 45°N and 0° to 23°E, using 549 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. We discovered three distinct lineages of E. affinis in Western Europe, namely the East Atlantic lineage, the North Sea/English Channel (NSEC) lineage, and the Baltic lineage. These geographically separated lineages showed sequences divergence of 1.7–2.1%, dating back 1.9 million years (CI: 0.9–3.0 My) with no indication of isolation by distance. Genetic divergence in Europe was much lower than among North American lineages. Interestingly, genetic structure varied distinctively among the three lineages: the East Atlantic lineage was divided between the Gironde and the Loire populations, the NSEC lineage comprised one single population unit spanning the Seine, Scheldt and Elbe rivers and the third lineage was restricted to the Baltic Proper (Sweden). We revealed high haplotype diversity in the East Atlantic and the Baltic lineages, whereas in the NSEC lineage haplotype diversity was comparatively low. All three lineages showed signs of at least one demographic expansion event during Pleistocene glaciations that marked their genetic structure. These results provide a preliminary overview of the genetic structure of E. affinis in Europe.

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