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Modeled and measured underwater sound isopleths and implications for marine mammal mitigation in Alaska
Aerts, L.A.M.; Streever, B. (2016). Modeled and measured underwater sound isopleths and implications for marine mammal mitigation in Alaska, in: Popper, A.N. et al. (Ed.) The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875: pp. 9-16. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-1-4939-2981-8_2
In: Popper, A.N.; Hawkins, A. (Ed.) (2016). The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc: New York. ISBN 978-1-4939-2980-1. xxx, 1292 pp., more
In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer: Berlin. ISSN 0065-2598, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 

Keywords
    Air guns; Seismic; Marine
Author keywords
    "Take" estimate; Marine Mammal Protection Act

Authors  Top 
  • Aerts, L.A.M.
  • Streever, B.

Abstract
    Before operating air guns in Alaska, industry is usually required to model underwater sound isopleths, some of which have implications for the mitigation and monitoring of potential marine mammal impacts. Field measurements are often required to confirm or revise model predictions. We compared modeled and measured air gun sound isopleths from 2006 to 2012 and found poor agreement. Natural variability in the marine environment, application of precautionary correction factors, and data interpretation in the generation of circular isopleths all contributed to the observed poor agreement. A broader understanding of the realities of modeled and measured underwater sound isopleths will contribute to improved mitigation practices.

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