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Sources of underwater sound and their characterization
Ainslie, M.A.; de Jong, C.A.F. (2016). Sources of underwater sound and their characterization, in: Popper, A.N. et al. (Ed.) The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875: pp. 27-35. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-1-4939-2981-8_4
In: Popper, A.N.; Hawkins, A. (Ed.) (2016). The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc: New York. ISBN 978-1-4939-2980-1. xxx, 1292 pp., more
In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer: Berlin. ISSN 0065-2598, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 

Keyword
    Standardization
Author keywords
    Source level; Environmental cost

Authors  Top 
  • Ainslie, M.A.
  • de Jong, C.A.F.

Abstract
    Because of the history of sonar and sonar engineering, the concept of “source level” is widely used to characterize anthropogenic sound sources, but is it useful for sources other than sonar transmitters? The concept and applicability of source level are reviewed for sonar, air guns, explosions, ships, and pile drivers. International efforts toward the harmonization of the terminology for underwater sound and measurement procedures for underwater sound sources are summarized, with particular attention to the initiatives of the International Organization for Standardization.

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