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Assessment of marine mammal impact zones for use of military sonar in the Baltic Sea
Andersson, M.H.; Johansson, T. (2016). Assessment of marine mammal impact zones for use of military sonar in the Baltic Sea, in: Popper, A.N. et al. (Ed.) The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875: pp. 37-45. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-1-4939-2981-8_5
In: Popper, A.N.; Hawkins, A. (Ed.) (2016). The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc: New York. ISBN 978-1-4939-2980-1. xxx, 1292 pp., more
In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer: Berlin. ISSN 0065-2598, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 

Keyword
    Seals
Author keywords
    Harbor porpoise; Behavioral effects; Temporary threshold shift; Permanent threshold shift

Authors  Top 
  • Andersson, M.H.
  • Johansson, T.

Abstract
    Military sonars are known to have caused cetaceans to strand. Navies in shallow seas use different frequencies and sonar pulses, commonly frequencies between 25 and 100 kHz, compared with most studied NATO sonar systems that have been evaluated for their environmental impact. These frequencies match the frequencies of best hearing in the harbor porpoises and seals resident in the Baltic Sea. This study uses published temporary and permanent threshold shifts, measured behavioral response thresholds, technical specifications of a sonar system, and environmental parameters affecting sound propagation common for the Baltic Sea to estimate the impact zones for harbor porpoises and seals.

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