|Measurements of operational wind turbine noise in UK waters|Cheesman, S. (2016). Measurements of operational wind turbine noise in UK waters, in: Popper, A.N. et al. (Ed.) The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875: pp. 153-160. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-1-4939-2981-8_18
In: Popper, A.N.; Hawkins, A. (Ed.) (2016). The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc: New York. ISBN 978-1-4939-2980-1. xxx, 1292 pp., more
In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer: Berlin. ISSN 0065-2598, more
Underwater sound; Operational noise; Behavioral effects
The effects of wind farm operational noise have not been addressed to the same extent as their construction methods such as piling and drilling of the foundations despite their long operational lifetimes compared with weeks of construction. The results of five postconstruction underwater sound-monitoring surveys on wind farms located throughout the waters of the British Isles are discussed. These wind farms consist of differing turbine power outputs, from 3 to 3.6 MW, and differing numbers of turbines. This work presents an overview of the results obtained and discusses both the levels and frequency components of the sound in several metrics.