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Current status of development of methods to assess effects of cumulative or aggregated underwater sounds on marine mammals
Fleishman, E.; Streever, B.; Angliss, R.; Clark, C.W.; Ellison, W.T.; Frankel, A.; Gedamke, J.; Leu, M.; McKenna, M.; Racca, R.; Suydam, R. (2016). Current status of development of methods to assess effects of cumulative or aggregated underwater sounds on marine mammals, in: Popper, A.N. et al. (Ed.) The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875: pp. 303-311. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-1-4939-2981-8_36
In: Popper, A.N.; Hawkins, A. (Ed.) (2016). The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc: New York. ISBN 978-1-4939-2980-1. xxx, 1292 pp., more
In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer: Berlin. ISSN 0065-2598, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 

Keywords
    Behavior; Population dynamics; Marine
Author keywords
    Aggregate effects; National Environmental Policy Act; Stressor

Authors  Top 
  • Fleishman, E.
  • Streever, B.
  • Angliss, R.
  • Clark, C.W.
  • Ellison, W.T.
  • Frankel, A.
  • Gedamke, J.
  • Leu, M.
  • McKenna, M.
  • Racca, R.
  • Suydam, R.

Abstract
    There are no standards for assessment of the cumulative effects of underwater sound. Quantitative assessments typically consider a single source, whereas qualitative assessments may include multiple sources but rarely identify response variables. As a step toward understanding the cumulative effects of underwater sound, we assessed the aggregated sounds of multiple sources received by migrating bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). The quantitative method models the sound field from multiple sources and simulates movement of a population through it. The qualitative method uses experts to assess the responses of individuals and populations to sound sources and identify the potential mechanisms. These methods increase the transparency of assessments.

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