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Controlled sonar exposure experiments on cetaceans in Norwegian waters: overview of the 3S-Project
Lam, F.-P. A.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Miller, P.J.O.; Tyack, P.L.; Ainslie, M.A.; Cure, C.; Kleivane, L.; Sivle, L.D.; van Ijsselmuide, S.P.; Visser, F.; von Benda-Beckmann, A.M.; Wensveen, P.J.; Dekeling, R.P.A. (2016). Controlled sonar exposure experiments on cetaceans in Norwegian waters: overview of the 3S-Project, in: Popper, A.N. et al. (Ed.) The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875: pp. 589-598. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-1-4939-2981-8_71
In: Popper, A.N.; Hawkins, A. (Ed.) (2016). The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc: New York. ISBN 978-1-4939-2980-1. xxx, 1292 pp., more
In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer: Berlin. ISSN 0065-2598, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Keywords
    Sonar; Marine
Author keywords
    Behavioral response; Dose response

Authors  Top 
  • Lam, F.-P. A.
  • Kvadsheim, P.H.
  • Miller, P.J.O.
  • Tyack, P.L.
  • Ainslie, M.A.
  • Cure, C.
  • Kleivane, L.
  • Sivle, L.D.
  • van Ijsselmuide, S.P.
  • Visser, F.
  • von Benda-Beckmann, A.M.
  • Wensveen, P.J.
  • Dekeling, R.P.A.

Abstract
    In mitigating the risk of sonar operations, the behavioral response of cetaceans is one of the major knowledge gaps that needs to be addressed. The 3S-Project has conducted a number of controlled exposure experiments with a realistic sonar source in Norwegian waters from 2006 to 2013. In total, the following six target species have been studied: killer, long-finned pilot, sperm, humpback, minke, and northern bottlenose whales. A total of 38 controlled sonar exposures have been conducted on these species. Responses from controlled and repeated exposure runs have been recorded using acoustic and visual observations as well as with electronic tags on the target animal. So far, the first dose-response curves as well as an overview of the scored severity of responses have been revealed. In this paper, an overview is presented of the approach for the study, including the results so far as well as the current status of the ongoing analysis.

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