|Underwater sound propagation from marine pile driving|Reyff, J.A. (2016). Underwater sound propagation from marine pile driving, in: Popper, A.N. et al. (Ed.) The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875: pp. 909-915. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-1-4939-2981-8_112
In: Popper, A.N.; Hawkins, A. (Ed.) (2016). The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc: New York. ISBN 978-1-4939-2980-1. xxx, 1292 pp., more
In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer: Berlin. ISSN 0065-2598, more
Pile driving; Propagation; Marine
Peak; Root-mean-square; Sound exposure level
Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.