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Assessing the effectiveness of ramp-up during sonar operations using exposure models
von Benda-Beckmann, A.M.; Wensveen, P.J.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.-P. A.; Miller, P.J.O.; Tyack, P.L.; Ainslie, M.A. (2016). Assessing the effectiveness of ramp-up during sonar operations using exposure models, in: Popper, A.N. et al. (Ed.) The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875: pp. 1197-1203. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-1-4939-2981-8_150
In: Popper, A.N.; Hawkins, A. (Ed.) (2016). The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc: New York. ISBN 978-1-4939-2980-1. xxx, 1292 pp., more
In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer: Berlin. ISSN 0065-2598, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Orcinus orca (Linnaeus, 1758) [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    Ramp-up; Soft start; Mitigation; Killer whales; Sonar

Authors  Top 
  • von Benda-Beckmann, A.M.
  • Wensveen, P.J.
  • Kvadsheim, P.H.
  • Lam, F.-P. A.
  • Miller, P.J.O.
  • Tyack, P.L.
  • Ainslie, M.A.

Abstract
    Ramp-up procedures are used to mitigate the impact of sound on marine mammals. Sound exposure models combined with observations of marine mammals responding to sound can be used to assess the effectiveness of ramp-up procedures. We found that ramp-up procedures before full-level sonar operations can reduce the risk of hearing threshold shifts with marine mammals, but their effectiveness depends strongly on the responsiveness of the animals. In this paper, we investigated the effect of sonar parameters (source level, pulse-repetition time, ship speed) on sound exposure by using a simple analytical model and highlight the mechanisms that limit the effectiveness of ramp-up procedures.

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