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Development of a model to assess masking potential for marine mammals by the use of air guns in Antarctic waters
Wittekind, D.; Tougaard, J.; Stilz, P.; Dähne, M.; Clark, C.W.; Lucke, K.; von Benda-Beckmann, S.; Ainslie, M.A.; Siebert, U. (2016). Development of a model to assess masking potential for marine mammals by the use of air guns in Antarctic waters, in: Popper, A.N. et al. (Ed.) The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875: pp. 1243-1249. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-1-4939-2981-8_156
In: Popper, A.N.; Hawkins, A. (Ed.) (2016). The effects of noise on aquatic life II. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 875. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc: New York. ISBN 978-1-4939-2980-1. xxx, 1292 pp., more
In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer: Berlin. ISSN 0065-2598, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 

Keywords
    Seismic; Marine
Author keywords
    Mysticetes; Pinnipeds; Propagation modeling

Authors  Top 
  • Wittekind, D.
  • Tougaard, J.
  • Stilz, P.
  • Dähne, M.
  • Clark, C.W.
  • Lucke, K.
  • von Benda-Beckmann, S.
  • Ainslie, M.A.
  • Siebert, U.

Abstract
    We estimated the long-range effects of air gun array noise on marine mammal communication ranges in the Southern Ocean. Air gun impulses are subject to significant distortion during propagation, potentially resulting in a quasi-continuous sound. Propagation modeling to estimate the received waveform was conducted. A leaky integrator was used as a hearing model to assess communication masking in three species due to intermittent/continuous air gun sounds. Air gun noise is most probably changing from impulse to continuous noise between 1,000 and 2,000 km from the source, leading to a reduced communication range for, e.g., blue and fin whales up to 2,000 km from the source.

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