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Effects of induced paralysis on hemocytes and tissues of the giant lions-paw scallop by paralyzing shellfish poison
Estrada, N.; Rodriguez-Jaramillo, C.; Contreras, G.; Ascencio, F. (2010). Effects of induced paralysis on hemocytes and tissues of the giant lions-paw scallop by paralyzing shellfish poison. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 157(6): 1401-1415. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s00227-010-1418-4
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Estrada, N.
  • Rodriguez-Jaramillo, C.
  • Contreras, G.
  • Ascencio, F.

Abstract
    In general, bivalves are not affected by exposure to toxic dinoflagellates that produce paralyzing shellfish poisons (PSP). After injection with PSP extracted from the Gymnodinium catenatum, Nodipecten subnodosus is paralyzed, indicating that PSP provokes effects similar to what is observed in vertebrates, including paralysis and metabolic stress. To investigate the processes involved in poisoning by PSP, lions-paw scallops were injected with gonyautoxin (GTX) 2/3 epimers in the adductor muscle. Mild doses provoked adductor muscle contractions and paralysis, mantle retraction, and incapacity of shell closure, but scallops gradually recovered in a clear, dose-time recovery pattern. With high doses of GTX 2/3, scallops were permanently paralyzed, and hemocytes in hemolymph were reduced. Surprisingly, under these conditions, scallops continued normal feeding and did not show any microscopic defect in intestine or gills, but hemocytes infiltrated the adductor muscle and abnormal vitellogenesis and mantle melanization occurred. Paralysis stress was accompanied by negative scallop responses, based on visible effects, generation of nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, and changes in antioxidant and hydrolytic enzymes in hemocytes and tissues. These data can be used to understand potential side effects of PSP in bivalves.

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