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Brevetoxins in sharks and rays (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from Florida coastal waters
Flewelling, L.J.; Adams, D.H.; Naar, J.P.; Atwood, K.E.; Granholm, A.A.; O'Dea, S.N.; Landsberg, J.H. (2010). Brevetoxins in sharks and rays (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from Florida coastal waters. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 157(9): 1937-1953.
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Flewelling, L.J.
  • Adams, D.H.
  • Naar, J.P.
  • Atwood, K.E.
  • Granholm, A.A.
  • O'Dea, S.N.
  • Landsberg, J.H.

    In October 2000, a mass mortality of blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) and Atlantic sharpnose sharks (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae) in northwest Florida occurred in conjunction with a Karenia brevis red tide bloom. Before this incident, no information existed on red tide-induced shark mortalities or baseline brevetoxin levels in sharks and rays from red tide-endemic areas. We report here that brevetoxin accumulation in live and red tide-killed elasmobranchs is common during K. brevis blooms and non-bloom periods. Strong relationships were found between the frequency of red tide blooms and the average brevetoxin concentrations in elasmobranch tissues. The presence of brevetoxins in Atlantic coast sharks in the absence of documented K. brevis blooms may suggest that blooms are occurring in areas that are not well monitored. Although red tide-related shark mortalities are rarely observed, the presence of brevetoxins in shark embryos raises questions about the effects these toxins may have on the reproductive success of sharks.

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