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Passive sampling reversed: coupling passive field sampling with passive lab dosing to assess the ecotoxicity of mixtures present in the marine environment
Claessens, M.; Monteyne, E.; Wille, K.; Vanhaecke, L.; Roose, P.; Janssen, C.R. (2015). Passive sampling reversed: coupling passive field sampling with passive lab dosing to assess the ecotoxicity of mixtures present in the marine environment. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 93(1-2): 9-19. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.02.028
In: Marine Pollution Bulletin. Macmillan: London. ISSN 0025-326X, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Bacillariophyceae [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    Passive sampling; Passive dosing; Environmental mixtures; Mixtureeffects; Dose addition; Marine diatom

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Abstract
    This study presents a new approach in aquatic toxicity testing combining passive sampling and passive dosing. Polydimethylsiloxane sheets were used to sample contaminant mixtures in the marine environment. These sheets were subsequently transferred to ecotoxicological test medium in which the sampled contaminant mixtures were released through passive dosing. 4 out of 17 of these mixtures caused severe effects in a growth inhibition assay with a marine diatom. These effects could not be explained by the presence of compounds detected in the sampling area and were most likely attributable to unmeasured compounds absorbed to the passive samplers during field deployment. The findings of this study indicate that linking passive sampling in the field to passive dosing in laboratory ecotoxicity tests provides a practical and complimentary approach for assessing the toxicity of hydrophobic contaminant mixtures that mimics realistic environmental exposures. Limitations and opportunities for future improvements are presented.

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