|Mild desalination of various raw water streams|Groot, C.; van den Broek, W.; Loewenberg, J.; Koeman-Stein, N.; Heidekamp, M.; de Schepper, W. (2015). Mild desalination of various raw water streams. Wat. Sci. Tech. 72(3): 371-376. dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2015.228
In: Water Science and Technology. IWA Publishing: Oxford. ISSN 0273-1223, more
desalination; E4Water; raw water; reuse
|Authors|| || Top |
- Groot, C.
- van den Broek, W.
- Loewenberg, J.
- Koeman-Stein, N.
- Heidekamp, M.
- de Schepper, W., more
For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4Water project (www.e4water.eu) comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is designed to develop commercial applications for mild desalination of brackish raw water streams from various origins to enable reuse in industry or agriculture. This study describes an effective two-stage work process, which was used to narrow down a broad spectrum of desalination technologies to a selection of the most promising techniques for a demonstration pilot at 2-4 m(3)/hour. Through literature study, laboratory experiments and multi-criteria analysis, nanofiltration and electrodialysis reversal were selected, both having the potential to attain the objectives of E4Water at full scale.