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Mild desalination of various raw water streams
Groot, C.; van den Broek, W.; Loewenberg, J.; Koeman-Stein, N.; Heidekamp, M.; de Schepper, W. (2015). Mild desalination of various raw water streams. Wat. Sci. Tech. 72(3): 371-376.
In: Water Science and Technology. IWA Publishing: Oxford. ISSN 0273-1223, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 295614 [ OMA ]

    Brackish water
Author keywords
    desalination; E4Water; raw water; reuse

Authors  Top 
  • Groot, C.
  • van den Broek, W.
  • Loewenberg, J.
  • Koeman-Stein, N.
  • Heidekamp, M.
  • de Schepper, W., more

    For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4Water project ( comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is designed to develop commercial applications for mild desalination of brackish raw water streams from various origins to enable reuse in industry or agriculture. This study describes an effective two-stage work process, which was used to narrow down a broad spectrum of desalination technologies to a selection of the most promising techniques for a demonstration pilot at 2-4 m(3)/hour. Through literature study, laboratory experiments and multi-criteria analysis, nanofiltration and electrodialysis reversal were selected, both having the potential to attain the objectives of E4Water at full scale.

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