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Altrenogest and progesterone therapy during pregnancy in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with progesterone insufficiency
Robeck, T.; Gili, C.; Doescher, B.; Sweeney, J.; De Laender, P.; Van Elk, C.; O'Brien, J. (2012). Altrenogest and progesterone therapy during pregnancy in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with progesterone insufficiency. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 43(2): 296-308. hdl.handle.net/10.1638/2011-0166.1
In: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians: Lawrence, Kan.. ISSN 1042-7260, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821) [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    Luteal insufficiency; progestin; regumate; ultrasonography; fetalgrowth; bottlenose dolphin; parturition

Authors  Top 
  • Robeck, T.
  • Gili, C.
  • Doescher, B.
  • Sweeney, J.
  • De Laender, P.
  • Van Elk, C.
  • O'Brien, J.

Abstract
    Progesterone production is essential for growth and development of the conceptus during pregnancy. Abnormal development of the corpus luteum (CL) after conception can result in early embryonic loss or fetal abortion. Routine monitoring of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) pregnancy after artificial insemination or natural conception with ultrasonography and serum progesterone determination has allowed for the establishment of expected fetal growth rates and hormone concentrations. Using these monitoring techniques, we revealed four pregnant dolphins (12–24 yr old) with abnormally low progesterone production indicative of luteal insufficiency. Once diagnosed, animals were placed on altrenogest (0.044–0.088 mg/kg once daily) alone or with oral progesterone (50–200 mg twice daily). Doses of hormone were increased or decreased in each animal based on how fetal skull biparietal and thoracic growth rates compared with published normal values. Hormones were withdrawn starting from day 358 of gestation in animals 1 and 2, with labor occurring 6 and 7 days after withdrawal and at 376 and 373 days of gestation, respectively. Both deliveries were dystocic, with each calf requiring manual extraction and fetotomy for calf 1. The fetuses in animals 3 and 4 died at 348 and 390 days of gestation, respectively. Induction of labor was attempted in both animals, after fetal death, by using a combination of rapid progesterone withdrawal and steroid and prostaglandin F2a administration. The calf of animal 4 had to be removed with manual cervical dilation and fetotomy. All adult females survived the procedures. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that the CL is the primary source of progesterone throughout pregnancy in the bottlenose dolphin. Until further characterization of hormones required during pregnancy and at parturition has been accomplished, the exogenous progestagen supplementation protocol described here cannot be recommended for treatment of progesterone insufficiency in bottlenose dolphins.

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