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Molecular analyses of ostracod flocks from Lake Baikal and Lake Tanganyika
Schön, I.; Martens, K. (2012). Molecular analyses of ostracod flocks from Lake Baikal and Lake Tanganyika. Hydrobiologia 682(1): 91-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-011-0935-6
In: Hydrobiologia. Springer: The Hague. ISSN 0018-8158, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
Author keywords
    Ancient lakes; Ostracods; Genetic variability; Phylogeny; Divergencerates

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Abstract
    Ancient lakes are excellent laboratories for evolutionary research, where species can be studied in the cradle where they originated. In this article, we investigate two endemic ostracod species flocks from the two oldest lakes in the world, Lake Baikal (LB) (ca. 28 myr) and Lake Tanganyika (LT) (ca. 12 myr), with DNA sequence data. Nuclear ITS1 failed to resolve the phylogeny of both flocks. Whilst most phylogenetic relationships of the Tanganyika flock are resolved with mitochondrial COI, the Baikalian tree contains multifurications of up to seven different clades. The Tanganyikan Cyprideis flock shows higher genetic variability, which matches its higher morphological variability. A significant deviation from a constant divergence rate through time indicates that the Cytherissa flock most likely experienced explosive speciation events during its earlier history. Comparative analyses of substitution rates furthermore revealed that they are not clock-wise for COI. Ancestral Cytherissa probably radiated in LB 5–8 myr ago, around the time when the cold, oxygenated abyss was formed in LB. The Tanganyikan Cyprideis flock is almost twice as old as the Baikalian Cytherissa flock, and possibly older than LT itself, ca. 15 myr. The Cyprideis flock has survived drastic lake level changes and resulting salinity crises during its entire history.

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