|Sympagohydra tuuli (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa): first report from sea ice of the central Arctic Ocean and insights into histology, reproduction and locomotion|Siebert, S.; Anton-Erxleben, F.; Kiko, R.; Kramer, M. (2009). Sympagohydra tuuli (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa): first report from sea ice of the central Arctic Ocean and insights into histology, reproduction and locomotion. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 156(4): 541-554. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s00227-008-1106-9
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162, more
|Authors|| || Top |
- Siebert, S.
- Anton-Erxleben, F.
- Kiko, R.
- Kramer, M.
Various cnidarians have adapted their life style to interstitial habitats of marine sediments. Recently, for the first time a hydroid was reported from the interstitial brine channel system of Arctic fast ice. Due to its derived features, the new genus and species Sympagohydra tuuli was introduced. Here we describe findings of S. tuuli in sea ice at several sites within the central Arctic Ocean. In our view the results of this study do not allow assignment of Sympagohydra to any known family and we, therefore, suggest the introduction of a new family Sympagohydridae which is placed within the hydrozoan subclass Hydroidolina, order Anthomedusae, suborder Capitata. A first detailed histological analysis of S. tuuli is presented. In vivo analysis of locomotion and reproduction revealed a remarkable convergent evolution in S. tuuli and distant meiobenthic relatives. Shared traits are a flagellated epidermis enabling the animals to glide within small interstices by means of flagellar beating as well as an internalised embryogenesis. In S. tuuli gametogenesis occurs in the absence of gonophores inbetween gastro- and epidermis clearly separated from the epidermis. Budding was observed as the vegetative mode of reproduction. Documentation of feeding behaviour identified copepod nauplii and rotifers as prey items and demonstrates a high trophical position of the hydroids within the sympagic food web. Occurrence of reproducing individuals and pronounced tolerances towards changing temperatures and salinities indicate S. tuuli as a truly sympagic species.