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Bacterial symbionts as an additional cytological marker for identification of sponges without a skeleton
Vishnyakov, A.E.; Ereskovsky, A.V. (2009). Bacterial symbionts as an additional cytological marker for identification of sponges without a skeleton. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 156(8): 1625-1632. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s00227-009-1198-x
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Vishnyakov, A.E.
  • Ereskovsky, A.V.

Abstract
    Symbiotic bacteria from six Oscarella species (adults and embryos) collected in the Mediterranean Sea (O. lobularis, O. tuberculata, O. imperialis, O. microlobata, O. viridis) and the Sea of Japan (O. malakhovi) were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In most cases, symbionts are rather numerous. Each sponge species has a definite set of bacterial morphological types. All bacteria are extracellular. Symbionts occupy the mesohyl of adult sponges or intercellular space in embryos and are often in contact with mesohylar filaments or cells. Bacteria of some morphotypes have characteristic blebs. Most symbionts are gram-negative, and two types of bacteria have traits of Archaea and one type of bacteria is similar to Planctomycetes. Data on morphology of bacterial symbionts can be a good additional character for identification of Oscarella species, which have no skeleton.

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