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Dinoflagellate Alexandrium leei (Dinophyceae) from Singapore coastal waters produces a water-soluble ichthyotoxin
Tang, Y.Z.; Kong, L.; Holmes, M.J. (2007). Dinoflagellate Alexandrium leei (Dinophyceae) from Singapore coastal waters produces a water-soluble ichthyotoxin. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 150(4): 541-549.
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162; e-ISSN 1432-1793, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Tang, Y.Z.
  • Kong, L.
  • Holmes, M.J.

    A strain of Alexandrium leei Balech that was isolated in October 2002 from Singapore coastal waters and identified by light and scanning electron microscopy and phylogenetic analysis using LSU rDNA sequences, is toxic to Asian sea bass fingerlings (Lates calcarifer Bloch). The ichthyotoxicity of the algal cells obtained by filtration (15 µm mesh net) and rinsed with sterile culture medium indicated that the toxicity of A. leei was probably not due to bacterial contamination, which was further supported by a negative correlation between the time to death of the fish and the dosage of algal cells applied. Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) could not be detected indicating that PST was not the cause of fish mortality. Fish bioassays using frozen culture, heat-treated cultures, cell-free culture medium, and hexane, ethyl acetate, and water extracts of algal cells indicated that A. leei produces a heat-stable, polar ichthyotoxin(s) which can be released from the algal cells into the culture medium. Phylogenetic analysis based on the LSU rDNA sequences of A. leei confirmed its identification and indicated that the Singapore strain is more similar to isolates from Malaysia than to a geographically distant strain from Korea. This is the first evidence of icthyotoxin production by A. leei.

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