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Life cycle of the rhizostome jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus (L.) (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae), with studies on cnidocysts and statoliths
Holst, S.; Sotje, I.; Tiemann, H.; Jarms, G. (2007). Life cycle of the rhizostome jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus (L.) (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae), with studies on cnidocysts and statoliths. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 151(5): 1695-1710. http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s00227-006-0594-8
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Holst, S.
  • Sotje, I.
  • Tiemann, H.
  • Jarms, G., more

Abstract
    Stages in the life cycle of the rhizostome jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus (L.) were reared in the laboratory from planula to young medusa and are described here. Fertilization of eggs was external, and planulae, 110–150 µm in length, appeared after 2 days. These settled and developed into the scyphistoma stage. Scyphistomae reached a maximum size of 2.3 mm, bore up to 24 tentacles, and had a large manubrium. Polyps reproduced asexually mainly by podocysts. Strobilation was induced by temperature change. Each strobila released up to five ephyrae that measured 2.7–5.8 mm in diameter at liberation. During transformation from newly released ephyra to young medusa, velar lappets appeared and increased in number, the manubrium developed eight branched oral arms with epaulettes, and a marginal gastric network arose. Only one cnidocyst type, the “a”-atrichous haploneme, was present in the planula. In addition to these haplonemes, heterotrichous microbasic euryteles were observed in polyps, ephyrae, and medusae. Statoliths, located in the rhopalia, had a characteristic compact shape. These sensory structures increased in number and size with the growth of ephyrae and medusae.

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