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Occurrence and detrimental effects of the bivalve-inhabiting hydroid Eutima japonica on juveniles of the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis in Funka Bay, Japan: relationship to juvenile massive mortality in 2003
Baba, K.; Miyazono, A.; Matsuyama, K.; Kohno, S.; Kubota, S. (2007). Occurrence and detrimental effects of the bivalve-inhabiting hydroid Eutima japonica on juveniles of the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis in Funka Bay, Japan: relationship to juvenile massive mortality in 2003. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 151(5): 1977-1987. http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s00227-007-0636-x
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Baba, K.
  • Miyazono, A.
  • Matsuyama, K.
  • Kohno, S.
  • Kubota, S.

Abstract
    In November 2003, we first observed prevalent occurrence of a hydroid, Eutima japonica, on soft body tissues of age zero Japanese scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis) juveniles cultured in large areas of Funka Bay, Hokkaido. The occurrence coincided with massive death of juvenile scallops. A major objective was to clarify ecological relationships between the symbionts, and to infer the relationship between symbiosis and the massive mortality. To do this, we investigated distributions of association rates of hydroids with juvenile scallops at 15–34 sites over 3 years (2003–2005), with age one adult scallops at 24 sites in 2003, and with mussels at 13 sites in 2004. We studied seasonal changes in association rates with juvenile scallops, and numbers of polyps per juvenile scallop at three sites from November 2003 to June 2004. We also quantified the hydroid impacts on juvenile scallop shell length growth and triglyceride accumulation in the digestive gland. The association rate of E. japonica polyps with juvenile scallops was high in large areas of Funka Bay in 2003, and overlapped the distribution of mussels bearing polyps. Association rates with age one adult scallops were very low in November 2003, even at the sites where polyps were very common on juvenile scallops. Levels of hydroid occurrence in juvenile scallops varies by year. We found that hydroids presence in juvenile scallops declined drastically in 2004 and 2005. The association rates with juvenile scallops, and numbers of polyps per juvenile scallop declined during winter, until they disappeared completely in the following June. Since polyps were rare in adult scallops, we believe that infection of juvenile scallops was probably initiated from the planulae produced by medusae released from polyps growing on Mytilus spp., especially M. galloprovincialis. Subsequently, the inhabitation spread intraspecifically and interspecifically. In juvenile scallops, inhabitation of polyps reduced shell length growth by 43%, and triglyceride accumulation in digestive glands by 24–47%. Inhabitation of E. japonica on juvenile scallop is best regarded as parasitism, rather than inquilinism or commensalism. Occurrence of polyps was probably not a direct lethal factor for juvenile scallops, because there were some sites where association rates were high, but mortalities were low. Massive mortalities in 2003 may have resulted from simultaneous impacts of heavy polyp load and stresses caused by the way in which the animals were handled (transferred from cages for pre-intermediate culture to cages for intermediate culture), because the massive mortality occurred within a month of the transfer. The presence of polyps in juvenile scallops does not affect the quality of the product in Funka Bay, because market size scallops are hydroid-free.

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