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Linking abundance and diversity of sponge-associated microbial communities to metabolic differences in host sponges
Weisz, J.B.; Hentschel, U.; Lindquist, N.; Martens, C.S. (2007). Linking abundance and diversity of sponge-associated microbial communities to metabolic differences in host sponges. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 152(2): 475-483.
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162; e-ISSN 1432-1793, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Weisz, J.B.
  • Hentschel, U.
  • Lindquist, N.
  • Martens, C.S.

    Many sponge species contain large and diverse communities of microorganisms. Some of these microbes are suggested to be in a mutualistic interaction with their host sponges, but there is little evidence to support these hypotheses. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios of sponges in the Key Largo, Florida (USA) area grouped sponges into species with relatively low d15N ratios and species with relatively high d15N ratios. Using samples collected in June 2002 from Three Sisters Reef and Conch Reef in the Key Largo, Florida area, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were performed on tissues of the sponges Ircinia felix and Aplysina cauliformis, which are in the low d15N group, and on tissue of the sponge Niphates erecta, which is in the high d15N group. Results showed that I. felix and A. cauliformis have large and diverse microbial communities, while N. erecta has a low biomass of one bacterial strain. As the low d15N ratios indicated a microbial input of nitrogen, these results suggested that I. felix and A. cauliformis were receiving nitrogen from their associated microbial community, while N. erecta was obtaining nitrogen solely from external sources. Sequence analysis of the microbial communities showed a diversity of metabolic capabilities among the microbes of the low d15N group, which are lacking in the high d15N group, further supporting metabolic differences between the two groups. This research provides support for hypotheses of mutualisms between sponges and their associated microbial communities.

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