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Larval settlement and metamorphosis of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis on different macroalgae
Yang, J.-L.; Satuito, C.G.; Bao, W.-Y.; Kitamura, H. (2007). Larval settlement and metamorphosis of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis on different macroalgae. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 152(5): 1121-1132. http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s00227-007-0759-0
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Yang, J.-L.
  • Satuito, C.G.
  • Bao, W.-Y.
  • Kitamura, H.

Abstract
    Settlement of mussels is commonly associated with macroalgae. The effects of 19 macroalgal species on the settlement and metamorphosis of pediveliger larvae of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis were investigated in the laboratory. Settlement and metamorphosis inducing activities of macroalgae Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Ceramium tenerrimum collected each month during the period between January 2005 and April 2006 were also investigated. Furthermore, C. fastigiata and C. tenerrimum were subjected to various treatments to investigate the roles of bacteria and diatoms on the algal surface in the induction of larval settlement and metamorphosis of M. galloprovincialis and the characteristics of the cues in these two macroalgae. Pediveliger larvae of M. galloprovincialis settled and metamorphosed in high percentages on Cladophora sp., Chlorodesmis fastigiata, Centroceras clavulatum, and Ceramium tenerrimum, all of which were filamentous in morphology. Macroalgae that were cylindrical, phylloid, flabellate, palmate and pinnate all showed low (<8%) percentages of post-larvae but four other filamentous macroalgae also had low mussel larval settlement, suggesting that chemical factors may also be involved. Seasonal variation had no effect on inductive activities of C. fastigiata and C. tenerrimum. Treatment of C. fastigiata and C. tenerrimum with formalin, ethanol and heat resulted in the significant decrease or loss of their inductive activities. Survival of algal cells within treated macroalgae also decreased significantly. Treatment of the two macroalgae with antibiotics and GeO2 reduced the numbers of bacteria and diatoms on their surface but did not affect their inductive activities, indicating that the cue was produced by macroalgae and not by coexisting bacteria and diatoms. However, conditioned water and crude extracts of these two macroalgae did not induce larval settlement and metamorphosis. Thus, larvae of M. galloprovincialis settled and metamorphosed on specific filamentous macroalgae. The chemical cues produced by C. fastigiata and C. tenerrimum were susceptible to ethanol and heat treatments and were not recovered in the conditioned water nor in the extracts. The finding that inactive C. tenerrimum can be produced from culturing its apical segments provides a new tool to elucidate the chemical cue(s) from macroalgae through manipulation of their culture conditions.

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