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Antioxidant defense properties of Arctic amphipods: comparison between deep-, sublittoral and surface-water species
Camus, L.; Gulliksen, B. (2005). Antioxidant defense properties of Arctic amphipods: comparison between deep-, sublittoral and surface-water species. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 146(2): 355-362. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s00227-004-1424-5
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Camus, L.
  • Gulliksen, B., more

Abstract
    The toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced naturally in an oxygenated environment, led to the development of antioxidant defenses by aerobic organisms to prevent tissue damage. Polar marine waters are regarded as a strongly prooxidant ecosystem, due to the high dissolved oxygen level and intense UV radiation during summer, while the deep waters are considered refuges against oxidative stress. In order to further elucidate the prooxidant and antioxidant forces associated with cold-water ecosystems and the implications of UV radiation, we sampled three amphipod species living at three different depths in the same water mass of the Arctic Ocean, characterized by low temperature (ca. 0°C), high oxygen level, and high ROS concentration in the surface water. The three species were the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus, the benthic sublittoral amphipod Anonyx nugax and the surface-water species Gammarus wilkitzkii inhabiting the ice pack. The total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) was measured in the cytosolic fraction of the digestive gland and in the cell-free hemolymph of the three amphipod species. A significantly low TOSC toward peroxyl and peroxynitrite radicals (P<0.05) in E. gryllus compared with the shallow-water species (A. nugax) can be explained by the low metabolism of the deep-sea species. In the cell-free hemolymph, TOSC values are similar between E. gryllus and A. nugax, while in G. wilkitzkii a lower and higher TOSC toward hydroxyl and peroxynitrite, respectively, indicate specific adaptation to oxidative stress. Experimental exposure of A. nugax and G. wilkitzkii to H2O2 resulted in a significant change in TOSC (P<0.05) measured in the digestive gland and in the cell-free hemolymph of A. nugax, while no change (P>0.05) was noted in G. wilkitzkii. These data suggest that A. nugax is highly susceptible to oxidative stress and that G. wilkitzkii is characterized by a mechanism that prevents the diffusion of exogenous ROS through the gills or allows excretion of internal H2O2 through the gills to the environment.

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