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Otolith microstructure and daily increment validation of marbled sole (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae)
Joh, M.; Takatsu, T.; Nakaya, M.; Higashitani, T.; Takahashi, T. (2005). Otolith microstructure and daily increment validation of marbled sole (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae). Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 147(1): 59-69.
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162; e-ISSN 1432-1793, more
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  • Joh, M.
  • Takatsu, T.
  • Nakaya, M.
  • Higashitani, T.
  • Takahashi, T.

    We examined the daily deposition of otolith increments of marbled sole (Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae) larvae and juveniles by rearing experiments, and estimated the growth pattern of wild larvae and juveniles in Hakodate Bay (Hokkaido Island, Japan). At 16°C, prominent checks (inner checks; ca. 19.8 µm in diameter) were observed on the centers of sagittae and lapilli extracted from 5-day-old larvae. On both otoliths, distinctive and regular increments were observed outside of the inner checks, and the slopes of regression lines between age and the number of increments (ni) (for sagittae: ni=0.98×Day-5.90; for lapillus: ni=0.96×Day-5.70) did not significantly differ from 1. Inner check formations were delayed at lower temperature, and the inner checks formed 13 days after hatching at 8°C. Over 80% of larvae, just after their yolk-sac has been absorbed completely (stage C), had inner checks on both their otoliths. On the lapilli, other checks (outer check) formed at the beginning of eye migration (stage G). To validate the daily deposition of increments during the juvenile stage, wild captured P. yokohamae juveniles were immersed in alizarin complexone (ALC)-seawater solutions and reared in cages set in their natural habitat. After 6 days, the mean number of rings deposited after the ALC mark was 5.7. The age–body length relationship of wild P. yokohamae larvae and juveniles caught in Hakodate Bay was divided into three phases. In the larval period, the relationship was represented by a quadratic equation (notochord length=-0.010×Age2+0.682×Age-2.480, r2=0.82, P<0.001), and the estimated instantaneous growth was 0.38 mm day-1 at 15 days, 0 mm day-1 at 34 days and -0.12 mm day-1 at 40 days. The age–body length relationship in the early juvenile stage (<50 days) and the late juvenile stage (>50 days) were represented by linear equations (standard length=0.055×Age+5.722 and standard length=0.345×Age-9.908, respectively). These results showed that the growth rates in the late larval periods and the early juvenile stage were lower than those in the early larval stage and late juvenile stage; during the slow growth period, energy appears to be directed towards metamorphosis rather than body growth. This study provided the information needed to use otolith microstructure analysis for wild marbled sole larvae and juveniles.

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