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Stimulatory effect of ingested protein and/or free amino acids on the secretion of the gastro-endocrine hormone cholecystokinin and on tryptic activity, in early-feeding herring larvae, Clupea harengus
Koven, W.; Rojas-Garcia, C.R.; Finn, R.N.; Tandler, A.; Rønnestad, I. (2002). Stimulatory effect of ingested protein and/or free amino acids on the secretion of the gastro-endocrine hormone cholecystokinin and on tryptic activity, in early-feeding herring larvae, Clupea harengus. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 140(6): 1241-1247. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s00227-002-0790-0
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Koven, W.
  • Rojas-Garcia, C.R.
  • Finn, R.N.
  • Tandler, A.
  • Rønnestad, I.

Abstract
    In the larvae of many marine teleosts, the stomach is absent until they approach or attain metamorphosis. Consequently, the formation of chyme containing specific free amino acids from the gastric digestion of protein, which are believed to be signals initiating the release of the digestive hormone cholecystokinin (CCK), is lacking. CCK, when secreted into the blood circulation from specialized intestinal cells, stimulates gallbladder motility and is a key factor causing the release of pancreatic digestive enzymes into the gut lumen. Using first-feeding Atlantic herring larvae (Clupea harengus) as a model, the aim of the present study was to determine if a CCK response together with tryptic activity could be elicited in larvae ingesting dietary protein and/or FAA. Larvae were tube fed single lamellar liposome vesicles (SLV) containing: (1) physiological saline (PS), (2) bovine serum albumin (BSA), (3) specific free amino acids (FAA), or (4) a ratio (1:1) of BSA and FAA. The CCK and trypsin levels were then assayed (radio-immunoassay) at 0, 15, 60 and 120 min after tube feeding. A marked CCK response was elicited in all treatments compared to the PS control at 15 and 30 min and was significant (p<0.05) at 120 min after tube feeding. Larvae tube fed the FAA treatment exhibited CCK levels that increased linearly from 1.6 to 5.6 fmol mg–1 dry weight (DW) after 2 h of digestion, although this response was below the BSA and BSA:FAA treatments. The BSA and BSA:FAA treatments, after 15 min of digestion, showed a rapid CCK increase, over the PS and the FAA liposome treatments, to 8.1 and 5.4 fmol mg–1 DW, respectively. At the end of the assay, BSA and BSA:FAA demonstrated similar levels (10.2 and 9.2 fmol mg–1 DW, respectively). Larvae tube fed the PS control or the FAA liposome treatment did not demonstrate any appreciable increase in tryptic activity during the 2 h digestion period (0.03–0.071 and 0.03–0.048 mU mg–1 DW, respectively). In contrast, the BSA:FAA treatment increased from 0.03–0.148 mU mg–1 DW 1 h after feeding, which was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the PS and FAA liposomes, and then decreased markedly (0.085 mU mg–1 DW) after 2 h of digestion. The larvae tube fed BSA liposomes, however, demonstrated steadily increasing tryptic activity throughout the sampling period, attaining 0.255 mU mg–1 DW after 2 h, which was significantly (p<0.05) more than all the other treatments. The results showed that ingested liposomes containing FAA or the protein BSA or a combination of these two nutrients effectively stimulated CCK production in first-feeding herring larvae. In contrast, liposomes containing only physiological saline did not elicit a CCK response. In addition, liposomes containing BSA stimulated tryptic activity in herring larvae, which was not observed in fish fed liposomes that included only FAA or PS. This suggests that a suitable protein substrate is required to regulate protein digestion.

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