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Widespread transmission of independent cancer lineages within multiple bivalve species
Metzger, M.J.; Villalba, A.; Carballal, M.J.; Iglesias, D.; Sherry, J.; Reinisch, C.; Muttray, A.F.; Baldwin, S.A.; Goff, S.P. (2016). Widespread transmission of independent cancer lineages within multiple bivalve species. Nature (Lond.) 534(7609): 705-709. hdl.handle.net/10.1038/nature18599
In: Nature: International Weekly Journal of Science. Nature Publishing Group: London. ISSN 0028-0836, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Marine environment; Cerastoderma edule (Linnaeus, 1758) [WoRMS]; Mya arenaria Linnaeus, 1758 [WoRMS]; Mytilus trossulus Gould, 1850 [WoRMS]; Polititapes aureus (Gmelin, 1791) [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    Neoplasias; Cancer lineages

Authors  Top 
  • Metzger, M.J.
  • Villalba, A.
  • Carballal, M.J.
  • Iglesias, D.
  • Sherry, J.
  • Reinisch, C.
  • Muttray, A.F.
  • Baldwin, S.A.
  • Goff, S.P.

Abstract
    Most cancers arise from oncogenic changes in the genomes of somatic cells, and while the cells may migrate by metastasis, they remain within that single individual. Natural transmission of cancer cells from one individual to another has been observed in two distinct cases in mammals (Tasmanian devils and dogs), but these are generally considered to be rare exceptions in nature. The discovery of transmissible cancer in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria suggested that this phenomenon might be more widespread. Here we analyse disseminated neoplasia in mussels (Mytilus trossulus), cockles (Cerastoderma edule), and golden carpet shell clams (Polititapes aureus) and find that neoplasias in all three species are attributable to independent transmissible cancer lineages. In mussels and cockles, the cancer lineages are derived from their respective host species; however, unexpectedly, cancer cells in P. aureus are all derived from Venerupis corrugata, a different species living in the same geographical area. No cases of disseminated neoplasia have thus far been found in V. corrugata from the same region. These findings show that transmission of cancer cells in the marine environment is common in multiple species, that it has originated many times, and that while most transmissible cancers are found spreading within the species of origin, cross-species transmission of cancer cells can occur.

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