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The skeleton of the stalked stages of the comatulid crinoid Antedon bifida (Echinodermata)
Lahaye, M.-C.; Jangoux, M. (1987). The skeleton of the stalked stages of the comatulid crinoid Antedon bifida (Echinodermata). Zoomorphology 107(1): 58-65.
In: Zoomorphology. Springer-Verlag: Berlin; Heidelberg. ISSN 0720-213X, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Lahaye, M.-C.
  • Jangoux, M., more

    The cystidean calyx of Antedon bifida (Pennant, 1777) consists of two superposed series of five inter-radially located plates called basals (lower plates) and orals (upper plates). A single radianal and five radial plates develop in early pentacrinoids. They are radially located between the orals and the basals and alternate with them. During pentacrinoid life, radials grow continuously while orals progressively regress. Basals fuse to the proximal forming the so-called rosette, and the radianal grows till the anal cone is formed and then regresses. The first primibrachials arise in 25 day pentacrinoids. Arms of detached juveniles usually have 13 secundibrachials, with IIBr13 each having a developing pinnule. No infrabasal develops between the series of basals and the upper columnal.During pentacrinoid life, the stalk progressively changes from homeomorphic to xenomorphic while most columnal articulations change from symmorphies to synarthries. Synarthrial fulcral ridges can rotate about 60° from one columnal articulation to another, allowing the stalk to be flexible in every direction. Formation of new columnals is continuous until the proximal appears (i.e. in 65 day pentacrinoids). The number of columnals in the fully-formed pentacrinoid stalk varies from 17 to 24 depending on the individual. Developing cirri are seen in 70 day pentacrinoids. Detached juveniles have two well-developed series of five cirri, which usually consist of ten cirral ossicles.

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