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An evolutionary interpretation of anomalous medusoid stages in the life cycles of some Leptomedusae (Cnidaria)
Boero, F.; Bouillon, J. (1989). An evolutionary interpretation of anomalous medusoid stages in the life cycles of some Leptomedusae (Cnidaria), in: Ryland, J.S. et al. (Ed.) Reproduction, Genetics and Distributions of Marine Organisms: 23rd European Marine Biology Symposium, School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales, Swansea, 5-9 September 1988. International Symposium Series, : pp. 37-41
In: Ryland, J.S.; Tyler, P.A. (Ed.) (1989). Reproduction, Genetics and Distributions of Marine Organisms: 23rd European Marine Biology Symposium, School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales, Swansea, 5-9 September 1988. International Symposium Series. Olsen & Olsen: Fredensborg. ISBN 87-85215-15-5. VIII, 469 pp., more
In: International Symposium Series. Olsen & Olsen: Fredensborg, more

Available in Authors 
    VLIZ: Proceedings [26876]
Document type: Conference paper

Keywords
    Evolution; Life cycle; Cnidaria [WoRMS]; Leptothecata [WoRMS]; Marine

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Abstract
    Some species of thecate hydroids (Leptomedusae) produce short-lived medusae with sex elements on the manubrium and not on the radial canals, in this respect being anthomedusan-like. These anomalous medusoids live for short periods and do not feed, their sole function being gamete dispersal. Comparison of the structure of these medusae with that of the fixed gonophores of thecate hydroids suggests that the composite character states of these "anomalous medusoids" could be considered a mosaic of free medusan and fixed gonophore structures. This morph is here referred to as a "swimming gonophore" and represents a derived stage in the evolution of hydromedusan life cycles.

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