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|The use of algal substitutes and the requirement for live algae in the hatchery and nursery rearing of bivalve molluscs: an international survey|
Coutteau, P.; Sorgeloos, P. (1992). The use of algal substitutes and the requirement for live algae in the hatchery and nursery rearing of bivalve molluscs: an international survey. J. Shellfish Res. 11(2): 467-476
In: Journal of Shellfish Research. National Shellfisheries Association: Duxbury. ISSN 0730-8000, more
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- Coutteau, P.; Sorgeloos, P. (1992). The use of algal substitutes and the requirement for live algae in the hatchery and nursery rearing of bivalve molluscs: an international survey, in: (1992). IZWO Coll. Rep. 22(1992). IZWO Collected Reprints, 22: pp. chapter10, more
The mass-production of micro-algae has been recognized by several authors as the main bottle-neck for the culture of bivalve seed. This has prompted a search for alternatives to on-site algal production, such as dried heterotrophically-grown algae, preserved algal pastes, micro-encapsulated diets, and yeasts. However the extent to which these products have been tried, and rejected or retained by hatchery operators is poorly documented. Also, the actual algal requirement and production cost of the bivalve seed industry is difficult to estimate.
The present inquiry allowed the collection of data concerning the requirement of live algae and its associated costs encountered in 50 commercial and experimental hatcheries from all over the world. Furthermore, the hatchery operators were questioned about their experience with alternatives for live algae, the quality and quantity of hatchery produced algae and bivalve seed, and the employment of this sector in aquaculture.
The capacity of the algal production facilities ranged between 1 m³ for a few research laboratories to nearly 500 m³ for one commercial hatchery. The total algal production capacity reported by 37 hatcheries amounted to about 500 m³ algal culture day-1, which is equivalent to about 50 kg of dry biomass. The total cost of algal production in 1990 reported by 20 hatcheries approximated US $700,000 and averaged about 30% of the total seed production cost. The estimates for the algal production cost ranged from US $50 to 400 per kg dry weight.
About a third of the questioned operators considered algal production as a limiting factor in the rearing of bivalve seed, whereas over 50% planned an expansion of the algal cultures and more than 90% was interested in the use of suitable artificial diet.
The large interest for alternatives for on-site algal production was further demonstrated by the fact that more than 50% of the operators claimed to have experimented with artificial diets. Despite the extensive research efforts, artificial diets are rarely applied in the routine process of bivalve seed production and are mostly considered as a useful backup diet.