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On the permeability and formation of the embryonic cuticle during development in vivo and in vitro of Artemia salina embryos
De Chaffoy, D.; De Maeyer-Criel, G.; Kondo, M. (1978). On the permeability and formation of the embryonic cuticle during development in vivo and in vitro of Artemia salina embryos. Differentiation 12(2): 99-109. hdl.handle.net/10.1111/j.1432-0436.1979.tb00995.x
In: Differentiation. Elsevier SCI Ltd: Oxford. ISSN 0301-4681, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • De Chaffoy, D.
  • De Maeyer-Criel, G.
  • Kondo, M.

Abstract
    Regardless of the reproductive route, e. g., ovoviviparity or oviparity, the embryo of Artemia saline up to the first gastrula stage is quite permeable to most precursor molecules. However, once the embryo reaches the second gastrula stage, it is no longer able to take up even inorganic phosphate. By contrast, the embryo excised from the uterus before the gastrula stage and grown thereafter ex utero remains completely permeable to this ion up to the naupliar differentiation stage. The resulting nauplius, however, is slightly malformed and is not able to undergo metamophosis.Electron microscopic study of these embryos demonstrated that the outer cuticular membrane (and also the fibrous layer of the embryonic cuticle) of the malformed embryo was morphologically different from the equivalent membrane of the normal embryo developed in utero beyond the gastrula stage. Since the outer cuticular membrane of the embryo limits the permeability in Artemia, the failure to acquire impermeability is ascribed to the formation of the abnormal outer cuticular membrane of the embryo grown ex utero. It is therefore concluded that the acquisition of impermeability in the developing gastrula embryo plays an essential role in the normal embryonic development in Artemia salina.

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