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Brain cholinesterase reactivation as a marker of exposure to anticholinesterase pesticides: a case study in a population of yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis (Naumann, 1840) along the northern coast of Portugal
Santos, C.S.A.; Monteiro, M.S.; Soares, A.M.V.M; Loureiro, S. (2016). Brain cholinesterase reactivation as a marker of exposure to anticholinesterase pesticides: a case study in a population of yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis (Naumann, 1840) along the northern coast of Portugal. Environm. Sc. & Poll. Res. 23(1): 266-272. dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5730-x
In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0944-1344 , more
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    Avian toxicity; Biomarkers; Carbamate pesticides; Chemical reactivation;Organophosphate pesticides; Spontaneous reactivation

Authors  Top 
  • Santos, C.S.A., more
  • Monteiro, M.S.
  • Soares, A.M.V.M
  • Loureiro, S.

Abstract
    Between late 2010 to early 2011, an increased mortality in gulls was observed along the northern coast of Portugal, with individuals exhibiting neurologic disorders consistent with an eventual anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning event. To clarify if this mortality was related to organophosphate (OP) and/or carbamate (CB) poisoning, chemical and spontaneous cholinesterase (ChE) reactivation was tested in the brain of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). Initial brain ChE activity in L. michahellis was 40.92 ± 5.23 U/mg of protein (average ± SE). Following chemical and spontaneous reactivation, ChE activity increased in average 70.38 ± 48.59 % and 131.95 ± 92.64 %, respectively. ChE reactivation was found to decrease at increasing concentrations of the oxime pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride and dilution factor, underscoring the importance of first optimizing the assay conditions prior to its use on bird species. These results suggest that birds analysed could have been exposed to OP and CB pesticide compounds and that in most cases CB exposure appeared to be the main cause of birds poisoning. These results are an important contribution to environmental monitoring as it demonstrates the suitability of L. michaellis as sentinel species of OP and CB pesticides within an urban environment.

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