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Characterization of outer ring iodothyronine deiodinases in tissues of the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus)
Shepherdley, C.A.; Richardson, S.J.; Evans, B.K.; Kühn, E.R.; Darras, V.M. (2002). Characterization of outer ring iodothyronine deiodinases in tissues of the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 125(3): 387-398. dx.doi.org/10.1006/gcen.2001.7764
In: General and Comparative Endocrinology. Elsevier: New York,. ISSN 0016-6480, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 

Keyword
    Marine
Author keywords
    deiodinases; thyroid hormones; saltwater crocodile

Authors  Top 
  • Shepherdley, C.A.
  • Richardson, S.J.
  • Evans, B.K.
  • Kühn, E.R.
  • Darras, V.M.

Abstract
    The distribution and characterization of outer ring deiodination (ORD) using reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) and thyroxine (T4) as substrates is reported in microsomes of liver, kidney, lung, heart, gut, and brain tissues from juvenile saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus). In lung and heart only small amounts of rT3 ORD and T4 ORD were detected, while in brain only a small amount of T4 ORD was detected. More detailed characterization studies could be performed on liver, kidney, and gut microsomes. Reverse T3 outer ring deiodination (rT3 ORD) was the predominant activity in liver and kidney microsomes. The properties of crocodile liver and kidney rT3 ORD, such as preference for rT3 as substrate, a dithiothreitol (DTT) requirement of 10 mM, inhibition by propylthiouracil (PTU), and Michaelis–Menten (Km) constant in the micromolar range, correspond to the properties previously reported for a type I deiodinase. The temperature optimum for rT3 ORD was between 30 and 35°. There was also rT3 ORD activity in gut microsomes, along with what appeared to be a type II-like, low-Km deiodinase with a substrate preference for T4. There was also a small amount of T4 ORD activity in liver and kidney microsomes. Liver T4 ORD, like a type II deiodinase, had a preference for T4 as substrate at low substrate concentrations and a DTT requirement of 15 mM and was insensitive to PTU. However, at high substrate concentrations the predominant activity was of the type I deiodinase nature. T4 ORD in liver had an optimal incubation temperature of 30 to 35°. Gut microsomal T4 ORD was also type II-like at low substrate concentrations and type I-like at high substrate concentrations. Gut T4 ORD had an optimal incubation temperature of 25 to 30° and a DTT requirement of 20 mM DTT. Kidney microsomal T4 ORD had the same optimal temperature and DTT requirement as that in gut microsomes; however, there was no competition by low substrate concentrations. These results suggest that ORD in juvenile saltwater crocodile kidney is most likely exclusively catalyzed by a type I-like deiodinase. Liver and gut ORD, in contrast, is catalyzed by two enzymes, with a predominance of a type I-like deiodinase in liver and a type II-like deiodinase in gut. Low-Km T3 IRD activity could not be detected in any tissues of the juvenile saltwater crocodile.

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