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Bimodal latitudinal species richness and high endemicity of razor clams (Mollusca)
Saeedi, H.; Dennis, T.E.; Costello, M.J. (2017). Bimodal latitudinal species richness and high endemicity of razor clams (Mollusca). J. Biogeogr. 44(3): 592-604. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/jbi.12903
In: Journal of Biogeography. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford. ISSN 0305-0270; e-ISSN 1365-2699, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Endemicity
    Sea surface temperature
    Solenidae Lamarck, 1809 [WoRMS]
Author keywords
    biogeographical region; continental-shelf area; latitudinal diversity gradient; razor clams; tropical

Authors  Top 
  • Saeedi, H.
  • Dennis, T.E.
  • Costello, M.J., more

Abstract
    Aim: To examine the global distribution, endemicity, and latitudinal gradients of species richness of razor clams, family Solenidae.Location: Global.Methods: A total of 3105 distribution records for 77 Solen and Solena species were used. Species richness was plotted in 5° latitude–longitude cells and related to environmental variables.Results: The north-west Pacific and the Indo-West Pacific have the highest species richness (about 85% of all species)–mostly in the Sea of Japan, China Sea, the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea. Cluster analysis of similarity patterns of species composition (i.e., presence of Solenidae species) for 5° latitudinal–longitudinal grid cells showed 16 significant biogeographical regions that concur with existing marine biogeographical hypotheses. More than half of the species were endemic to specific biogeographical regions. The geographical distribution of species in 5° latitudinal bands showed a significant bimodal pattern. Global patterns of species richness increased from the poles to intermediate latitudes and dipped near the equator. A non-linear relationship between species richness and mean sea-surface temperature (SST) values was compatible with this bimodal pattern. Two inflection points of species richness with correlation of SST at 12 °C (low species richness) and 28 °C (high species richness) were coincident with the bimodal latitudinal species richness pattern. Species richness was highly positively correlated with mean SST over all latitudes, and within the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Species richness decreased with SST range over all latitudes and in the Northern Hemisphere. Species richness also decreased with chlorophyll-a concentration and primary productivity, but increased with ocean area in the Northern Hemisphere (only).Main conclusions: The latitudinal distribution in species richness of Solenidae peaked at 10° N and 25° S rather than at the equator, exhibiting a strongly bimodal pattern that is likely to be temperature driven.

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