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Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability
Lewis, M.; Pryor, R. (2013). Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability. Environ. Pollut. 180: 345-367. hdl.handle.net/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.05.001
In: Environmental Pollution. Elsevier: Barking. ISSN 0269-7491; e-ISSN 1873-6424, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine
Author keywords
    Review; Phytotoxicity; Oils; Dispersants; Algae; Wetland plants; Mangroves; Seagrasses

Authors  Top 
  • Lewis, M.
  • Pryor, R.

Abstract
    Phytotoxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils. The phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of reactive research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for at least 41 crude oils and 56 dispersants. As many as 107 response parameters have been monitored for 85 species of unicellular and multicellular algae, 28 wetland plants, 13 mangroves and 9 seagrasses. Effect concentrations have varied by as much as six orders of magnitude due to experimental diversity. This diversity restricts phytotoxicity predictions and identification of sensitive species, life stages and response parameters. As a result, evidence-based risk assessments for most aquatic plants and petrochemicals and dispersants are not supported by the current toxicity database. A proactive and experimentally-consistent approach is recommended to provide threshold toxic effect concentrations for sensitive life stages of aquatic plants inhabiting diverse ecosystems.

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