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Marine ecosystems
Grassle, J.F. (2013). Marine ecosystems, in: Levin, S.A. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. pp. 45-55. hdl.handle.net/10.1016/B978-0-12-384719-5.00290-2
In: Levin, S.A. (Ed.) (2013). Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. 2. Academic Press: [s.l.]. ISBN 9780123847201. 5504 pp., more

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Keyword
    Marine
Author keywords
    Barcoding; Benthic; Coral; Deep sea; Estuary; Eutrophication; Hydrothermal; Invertebrate; Mangrove; OBIS; Overfishing; Pelagic; Seagrass; Seamount; Species

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  • Grassle, J.F.

Abstract
    Marine ecosystems may be defined as major units of ecological function in the marine environment. Ecosystems are communities of organisms and their physical, chemical, and geological environment – distinct assemblages of species coevolved with a particular environment over long periods of evolutionary history. As units of function, ecosystems have measurable imports and exports of material and energy. In comparison to ecosystems on land, ocean ecosystems have less clearly defined boundaries, a greater variety of major taxonomic divisions of organisms, and a long evolutionary history that preceded colonization of land. As the diversity of life in the oceans is explored, the importance of previously unrecognized aspects of ocean circulation, flux of energy and materials, and bottom characteristics to marine ecosystems are becoming better understood.

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