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Drivers of Cape Verde archipelagic endemism in keyhole limpets
Cunha, R.L.; Assis, J.M.; Madeira, C.; Seabra, R.; Lima, F.P.; Lopes, E.P.; Williams, S.T.; Castilho, R. (2017). Drivers of Cape Verde archipelagic endemism in keyhole limpets. NPG Scientific Reports 7(41817): 11 pp. http://hdl.handle.net/10.1038/srep41817
In: Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group). Nature Publishing Group: London. ISSN 2045-2322; e-ISSN 2045-2322, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Cunha, R.L.
  • Assis, J.M.
  • Madeira, C.
  • Seabra, R.
  • Lima, F.P.
  • Lopes, E.P.
  • Williams, S.T.
  • Castilho, R.

Abstract
    Oceanic archipelagos are the ideal setting for investigating processes that shape species assemblages. Focusing on keyhole limpets, genera Fissurella and Diodora from Cape Verde Islands, we used an integrative approach combining molecular phylogenetics with ocean transport simulations to infer species distribution patterns and analyse connectivity. Dispersal simulations, using pelagic larval duration and ocean currents as proxies, showed a reduced level of connectivity despite short distances between some of the islands. It is suggested that dispersal and persistence driven by patterns of oceanic circulation favouring self-recruitment played a primary role in explaining contemporary species distributions. Mitochondrial and nuclear data revealed the existence of eight Cape Verde endemic lineages, seven within Fissurella, distributed across the archipelago, and one within Diodora restricted to Boavista. The estimated origins for endemic Fissurella and Diodora were 10.2 and 6.7 MY, respectively. Between 9.5 and 4.5 MY, an intense period of volcanism in Boavista might have affected Diodora, preventing its diversification. Having originated earlier, Fissurella might have had more opportunities to disperse to other islands and speciate before those events. Bayesian analyses showed increased diversification rates in Fissurella possibly promoted by low sea levels during Plio-Pleistocene, which further explain differences in species richness between both genera.

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