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Chytridiomycosis of marine diatoms-the role of stress physiology and resistance in parasite-host recognition and accumulation of defense molecules
Scholz, B.; Küpper, F.C.; Vyverman, W.; Ólafsson, H.G.; Karsten, U. (2017). Chytridiomycosis of marine diatoms-the role of stress physiology and resistance in parasite-host recognition and accumulation of defense molecules. Mar. Drugs 15(2): 19 pp. https://hdl.handle.net/10.3390/md15020026
In: Marine Drugs. Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI): Basel. ISSN 1660-3397; e-ISSN 1660-3397, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Chytridiaceae Nowak., 1878 [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    aldehydes; chemotaxis; chytrids; carbohydrates; amino acids; fattyacids; parasite-host interactions; phytochemicals; polyunsaturated fattyacids; stress physiology; zoospores

Authors  Top 
  • Scholz, B.
  • Küpper, F.C.
  • Vyverman, W., more
  • Ólafsson, H.G.
  • Karsten, U.

Abstract
    Little is known about the role of chemotaxis in the location and attachment of chytrid zoospores to potential diatom hosts. Hypothesizing that environmental stress parameters affect parasite-host recognition, four chytrid-diatom tandem cultures (Chytridium sp./Navicula sp., Rhizophydium type I/Nitzschia sp., Rhizophydium type IIa/Rhizosolenia sp., Rhizophydium type IIb/Chaetoceros sp.) were used to test the chemotaxis of chytrid zoospores and the presence of potential defense molecules in a non-contact-co-culturing approach. As potential triggers in the chemotaxis experiments, standards of eight carbohydrates, six amino acids, five fatty acids, and three compounds known as compatible solutes were used in individual and mixed solutions, respectively. In all tested cases, the whole-cell extracts of the light-stressed (continuous light exposure combined with 6 h UV radiation) hosts attracted the highest numbers of zoospores (86%), followed by the combined carbohydrate standard solution (76%), while all other compounds acted as weak triggers only. The results of the phytochemical screening, using biomass and supernatant extracts of susceptible and resistant host-diatom cultures, indicated in most of the tested extracts the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, phenols, and aldehydes, whereas the bioactivity screenings showed that the zoospores of the chytrid parasites were only significantly affected by the ethanolic supernatant extract of the resistant hosts.

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