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How the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) loses its skeletal framework across lifetime
Rolvien, T.; Nagel, F.; Milovanovic, P.; Wuertz, S.; Marshall, R.P.; Jeschke, A.; Schmidt, F.N.; Hahn, M.; Witten, P.E.; Amling, M.; Busse, B. (2016). How the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) loses its skeletal framework across lifetime. Proc. - Royal Soc., Biol. Sci. 283(1841). https://hdl.handle.net/10.1098/rspb.2016.1550
In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. The Royal Society: London. ISSN 0962-8452; e-ISSN 1471-2954, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) [WoRMS]
    Marine; Brackish water; Fresh water
Author keywords
    European eel; bone loss; spawning migration; osteoclasts

Authors  Top 
  • Rolvien, T.
  • Nagel, F.
  • Milovanovic, P.
  • Wuertz, S.
  • Marshall, R.P.
  • Jeschke, A.
  • Schmidt, F.N.
  • Hahn, M.
  • Witten, P.E., more
  • Amling, M.
  • Busse, B.

Abstract
    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undertake an impressive 5 000 km long migration from European fresh waters through the North Atlantic Ocean to the Sargasso Sea. Along with sexual maturation, the eel skeleton undergoes a remarkable morphological transformation during migration, where a hitherto completely obscure bone loss phenomenon occurs. To unravel mechanisms of the maturation-related decay of the skeleton, we performed a multiscale assessment of eels' bones at different life-cycle stages. Accordingly, the skeleton reflects extensive bone loss that is mediated via multinucleated bone-resorbing osteoclasts, while other resorption mechanisms such as osteocytic osteolysis or matrix demineralization were not observed. Preserving mechanical stability and releasing minerals for energy metabolism are two mutually exclusive functions of the skeleton that are orchestrated in eels through the presence of two spatially segregated hard tissues: cellular bone and acellular notochord. The cellular bone serves as a source of mineral release following osteoclastic resorption, whereas the mineralized notochord sheath, which is inaccessible for resorption processes due to an unmineralized cover layer, ensures sufficient mechanical stability as a part of the notochord sheath. Clearly, an eel's skeleton is structurally optimized to meet the metabolic challenge of fasting and simultaneous sexual development during an exhausting journey to spawning areas, while the function of the vertebral column is maintained to achieve this goal.

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