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Comprehensive review of several surfactants in marine environments: fate and ecotoxicity
Jackson, M.; Eadsforth, C.; Schowanek, D.; Delfosse, T.; Riddle, A.; Budgen, N. (2016). Comprehensive review of several surfactants in marine environments: fate and ecotoxicity. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 35(5): 1077-1086. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1002/etc.3297
In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Setac Press: New York. ISSN 0730-7268; e-ISSN 1552-8618, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine
Author keywords
    Marine toxicity test; Biodegradation; Bioconcentration; Environmentalfate; Ecotoxicology

Authors  Top 
  • Jackson, M.
  • Eadsforth, C.
  • Schowanek, D.
  • Delfosse, T.
  • Riddle, A.
  • Budgen, N.

Abstract
    Surfactants are a commercially important group of chemicals widely used on a global scale. Despite high removal efficiencies during wastewater treatment, their high consumption volumes mean that a certain fraction will always enter aquatic ecosystems, with marine environments being the ultimate sites of deposition. Consequently, surfactants have been detected within marine waters and sediments. However, aquatic environmental studies have mostly focused on the freshwater environment, and marine studies are considerably underrepresented by comparison. The present review aims to provide a summary of current marine environmental fate (monitoring, biodegradation, and bioconcentration) and effects data of 5 key surfactant groups: linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxysulfates, alkyl sulfates, alcohol ethoxylates, and ditallow dimethyl ammonium chloride. Monitoring data are currently limited, especially for alcohol ethoxysulfates and alkyl sulfates. Biodegradation was shown to be considerably slower under marine conditions, whereas ecotoxicity studies suggest that marine species are approximately equally as sensitive to these surfactants as freshwater species. Marine bioconcentration studies are almost nonexistent. Current gaps within the literature are presented, thereby highlighting research areas where additional marine studies should focus.

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