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Image cytometric analysis of algal spores for evaluation of antifouling activities of biocidal agents
Il Koo, I.K.; Lee, Y.-S.; Seo, M.; Seok Choi, H.; Leng Seah, G.; Nam, T.; Nam, Y.S. (2017). Image cytometric analysis of algal spores for evaluation of antifouling activities of biocidal agents. NPG Scientific Reports 7(1): 10 pp. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1038/s41598-017-07362-x
In: Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group). Nature Publishing Group: London. ISSN 2045-2322; e-ISSN 2045-2322, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Il Koo, I.K.
  • Lee, Y.-S.
  • Seo, M.
  • Seok Choi, H.
  • Leng Seah, G.
  • Nam, T.
  • Nam, Y.S.

Abstract
    Chemical biocides have been widely used as marine antifouling agents, but their environmental toxicity impose regulatory restriction on their use. Although various surrogate antifouling biocides have been introduced, their comparative effectiveness has not been well investigated partly due to the difficulty of quantitative evaluation of their antifouling activity. Here we report an image cytometric method to quantitatively analyze the antifouling activities of seven commercial biocides using Ulva prolifera as a target organism, which is known to be a dominant marine species causing soft fouling. The number of spores settled on a substrate is determined through image analysis using the intrinsic fluorescence of chlorophylls in the spores. Pre-determined sets of size and shape of spores allow for the precise determination of the number of settled spores. The effects of biocide concentration and combination of different biocides on the spore settlement are examined. No significant morphological changes of Ulva spores are observed, but the amount of adhesive pad materials is appreciably decreased in the presence of biocides. It is revealed that the growth rate of Ulva is not directly correlated with the antifouling activities against the settlement of Ulva spores. This work suggests that image cytometric analysis is a very convenient, fast-processable method to directly analyze the antifouling effects of biocides and coating materials.

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