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Estimating common trends in multivariate time series using dynamic factor analysis
Zuur, A.F.; Fryer, R.J.; Jolliffe, I.T.; Dekker, R.; Beukema, J.J. (2003). Estimating common trends in multivariate time series using dynamic factor analysis. Environmetrics 14(7): 665-685. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1002/env.611
In: Environmetrics. Wiley: Chichester. ISSN 1099-095X, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Author keywords
    dynamic factor analysis; EM algorithm; multivariate time series analysis; common trends

Authors  Top 
  • Zuur, A.F.
  • Fryer, R.J.
  • Jolliffe, I.T.
  • Dekker, R.
  • Beukema, J.J., more

Abstract
    This article discusses dynamic factor analysis, a technique for estimating common trends in multivariate time series. Unlike more common time series techniques such as spectral analysis and ARIMA models, dynamic factor analysis can analyse short, non-stationary time series containing missing values. Typically, the parameters in dynamic factor analysis are estimated by direct optimization, which means that only small data sets can be analysed if computing time is not to become prohibitively long and the chances of obtaining sub-optimal estimates are to be avoided. This article shows how the parameters of dynamic factor analysis can be estimated using the EM algorithm, allowing larger data sets to be analysed. The technique is illustrated on a marine environmental data set

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