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Morphology and phylogeny of Prorocentrum caipirignum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a new tropical toxic benthic dinoflagellate
Nascimento, S.M.; Mendes, M.C.Q.; Menezes, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Alves-de-Souza, C.; Branco, S.; Riobó, P.; Franco, J.; Nunes, J.M.C.; Huk, M.; Morris, S.; Fraga, S. (2017). Morphology and phylogeny of Prorocentrum caipirignum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a new tropical toxic benthic dinoflagellate. Harmful Algae 70: 73-89.
In: Harmful Algae. Elsevier: Tokyo; Oxford; New York; London; Amsterdam; Shannon; Paris. ISSN 1568-9883; e-ISSN 1878-1470, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    Benthic dinoflagellates; HABs; ITS; LSU rDNA

Authors  Top 
  • Nascimento, S.M.
  • Mendes, M.C.Q.
  • Menezes, M.
  • Rodriguez, F.
  • Alves-de-Souza, C.
  • Branco, S.
  • Riobó, P.
  • Franco, J.
  • Nunes, J.M.C.
  • Huk, M.
  • Morris, S.
  • Fraga, S.

    A new species of toxic benthic dinoflagellate is described based on laboratory cultures isolated from two locations from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro and Bahia. The morphology was studied with SEM and LM. Cells are elliptical in right thecal view and flat. They are 37–44 μm long and 29–36 μm wide. The right thecal plate has a V shaped indentation where six platelets can be identified. The thecal surface of both thecal plates is smooth and has round or kidney shaped and uniformly distributed pores except in the central area of the cell, and a line of marginal pores. Some cells present an elongated depression on the central area of the apical part of the right thecal plate. Prorocentrum caipirignum is similar to Prorocentrum lima in its morphology, but can be differentiated by the general cell shape, being elliptical while P. lima is ovoid. In the phylogenetic trees based on ITS and LSU rDNA sequences, the P. caipirignum clade appears close to the clades of P. lima and Prorocentrum hoffmannianum. The Brazilian strains of P. caipirignum formed a clade with strains from Cuba, Hainan Island and Malaysia and it is therefore likely that this new species has a broad tropical distribution. Prorocentrum caipirignum is a toxic species that produces okadaic acid and the fast acting toxin prorocentrolide.

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