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Phosphorus dynamics in and below the redoxcline in the Black Sea and implications for phosphorus burial
Dijkstra, N.; Kraal, P.; Séguret, M.J.M. ; Flores, M.R.; Gonzalez, S.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Slomp, C.P. (2018). Phosphorus dynamics in and below the redoxcline in the Black Sea and implications for phosphorus burial. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 222: 685-703. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2017.11.016
In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. Elsevier: Oxford,New York etc.. ISSN 0016-7037; e-ISSN 1872-9533, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    Particulate P; Organic P; Calcium-associated P; Redox chemistry; Black Sea

Authors  Top 
  • Dijkstra, N.
  • Kraal, P.
  • Séguret, M.J.M.
  • Flores, M.R.
  • Gonzalez, S., more
  • Rijkenberg, M.J.A., more
  • Slomp, C.P.

Abstract
    Marine basins with oxygen-depleted deep waters provide a natural laboratory to investigate the consequences of anoxic and sulfidic (i.e. euxinic) conditions for biogeochemical processes in seawater and sediments. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) and associated elements such as manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) in the euxinic deep basin of the Black Sea. By examining water column particles with scanning electron microscope – energy dispersive spectroscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that Mn(III/IV)-P is the key form of particulate P in the redoxcline. Other forms of particulate P include organic P, Fe(III)-P, and inorganic polyphosphates. Most inorganic P particles that are formed in the redoxcline subsequently dissolve in the underlying sulfidic waters, with the exception of some particulate Fe(III)-P that accounts for <1% of all P settling onto the seafloor. Organic P is the dominant source of P to the sediment. Most of this organic P is degraded in the upper 2 cm of the sediment. Results of sequential extractions and a 33P radiotracer experiment point towards the formation of labile Ca-P and P adsorbed onto calcium-carbonate and clays and a role of these phases as a major sink of P in the sediment. The total P burial efficiency in the sediments is ∼27%, which is relatively high when compared to estimates for sediments in other euxinic basins such as the Baltic Sea (<12%). We suggest that the abundant presence of calcium carbonate may contribute to the more efficient sequestration of P in Black Sea sediments.

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